Hofstede’s individual-level indulgence dimension: Scale development and validation

Read the publication online


Ali Heydari – Michel Laroche – Michèle Paulin  – Marie-Odile Richard

2021 septembre 21st 

In spite of the important role of culture in consumer behavior, there has been no study of the effects of indulgence vs. restraint, the sixth dimension of Hofstede’s cultural framework, at the individual level. This is mainly because there has been no scale to measure indulgence vs. restraint at the individual level. Given that ascribing national-level cultural scores to individuals may cause an ecological fallacy, the four studies of this research conceptualize and develop a valid and reliable measure for individual-level indulgence. In study 1 (n= 290), using PCA, the items were purified to the final six items. The result of an EFA in study 2 (n=230) suggested a unidimensional six-item structure for the scale. This structure was confirmed by a CFA in study 3 (n=257). Study 3 established the reliability, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities of the scale. In study 4 (n=219), through developing and testing the nomological network, the nomological validity of the scale was supported by showing that the impacts of individual-level indulgence on hedonic attitudes and repurchase intentions are mediated by positive post-purchase emotions and hedonic attitudes, respectively.